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Simon Nkoli’s battle for queer rights in South Africa is lastly being celebrated – 24 years after he died

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Born in 1957, Simon Tseko Nkoli had simply turned 41 when he died, in 1998, of an AIDS-related sickness. In his quick life, the South African activist fought in opposition to totally different types of oppression. He fought for these downtrodden due to their “race”. He stood up for these ostracised due to their HIV standing. His best battle, although, was for these persecuted due to their sexual orientation.

Nkoli was born and raised in Soweto, the biggest black township in a South Africa dominated by a white minority who enforced apartheid, a system of racial segregation. His activism started in 1980 when he joined the Congress of South African Students, a youth organisation preventing apartheid.

In 1984, Nkoli was arrested and have become a trialist within the Delmas Treason Trial. Throughout his imprisonment, he got here out as homosexual to his comrades. This prompted a lot debate within the liberation motion but it surely was essential in altering the angle of the African National Congress (ANC) to homosexual rights. The ANC would go on to control the nation with the appearance of democracy in 1994, serving to form the primary constitution on the planet to outlaw discrimination primarily based on sexual orientation. Nkoli was chargeable for establishing various initiatives together with organising the first Pride march in Africa.

A man holds up his fist, a garland of flowers around his neck, a banner behind him.
<span class="caption">Nkoli at an anti-apartheid protest within the UK.</span> <span class="attribution"><span class="source">Gordon Rainsford/Simon Nkoli Assortment/GALA Queer Archive</span></span>

There was a rising wave of curiosity in Nkoli’s life. South African musician Majola sings about queer love in isiXhosa, one of many nation’s most generally spoken languages. His 2017 album Boet/Sissy has a song devoted to the activist. Additionally noteworthy is the South African artist Athi-Patra Ruga’s sculptural work on Nkoli. A brand new South African musical manufacturing by composer Philip Miller referred to as GLOW: The Life and Trials of Simon Nkoli is about to launch in 2023.

Learn extra: Desmond Tutu’s long history of fighting for lesbian and gay rights

The annual Simon Nkoli Memorial Lecture is one other occasion that celebrates the legacy of the late activist. The ninth edition was held in November 2022, co-organised by the Simon Nkoli Collective, the place I gave the keynote handle.

I argued that Nkoli’s activism highlighted the intersectionality of methods of oppression. Intersectionality refers to how a number of social struggles are interlinked. It recognises the interconnectedness of varied methods of oppression akin to racism, sexism and homophobia.

Nkoli was aware of how these had been interrelated and this text considers what might be learnt from his activism at present.

Intersectional methods of oppression

In a compelling speech in 1990 earlier than the primary Satisfaction march in Johannesburg, organised by the Gay and Lesbian Organisation of the Witwatersrand (GLOW), Nkoli stated:

That is what I say to my comrades within the wrestle once they ask me why I waste time preventing for moffies (a deregatory Afrikaans language time period which means faggot). That is what I say to homosexual males and lesbians who ask me why I spend a lot time struggling in opposition to apartheid after I ought to be preventing for homosexual rights. I’m black and I’m homosexual. I can not separate the 2 components into secondary and first struggles. In South Africa I’m oppressed as a result of I’m a black man, and I’m oppressed as a result of I’m homosexual. So, after I battle for my freedom, I need to battle in opposition to each oppressors.

Nkoli recognised that the struggles of queer people are linked to the struggles of girls and that the struggles of queer people and ladies can’t be disconnected from these of black folks.

He was, nonetheless, conscious of the truth that the intersectionality of struggles had its limits. Though queer folks of various courses and races marched collectively in 1990, he was not so shortsighted that he believed all these folks had been thought-about equal. He defined in a 1989 interview that even inside the queer liberation motion there have been splinters due primarily to racial variations.

Nkoli’s activism ensured that the rights of sexual minorities had been enshrined within the Bill of Rights of South Africa’s structure of 1994. This was completed by the advocacy work of organisations just like the Nationwide Coalition for Homosexual and Lesbian Equality that introduced collectively various organisations.

What we are able to study from Nkoli at present?

We study from Simon Nkoli that the battle for social justice and social equality calls for collaborative and joint efforts. I muse on the isiZulu language time period for intersectionality coined by a pupil activist, Zandile Manzini: “ukuhlangana kobuntu”. Any sustainable types of preventing in opposition to social inequality are constructed on the thought of returning the humanness to folks. Preventing oppression calls for that the humanity and the dignity of everyone seems to be revered no matter social class, race, ethnicity, political affiliation, sexual orientation, gender id or nationality.

Four people of differing ages pose with an elderly man in a nondescript office setting. They smile at the camera.

<span class="caption">The president meets homosexual and lesbian activists, 1995. From left: actor Ian McKellen, activist Phumi Mtetwa, Nelson Mandela and Simon Nkoli.</span> <span class="attribution"><span class="source">Courtesy the Nationwide Coalition for Homosexual &amp; Lesbian Equality Assortment/GALA Queer Archive</span></span>

Retired South African choose Edwin Cameron, himself overtly homosexual and dwelling with HIV, defined Nkoli’s legacy on the opening of the Simon Nkoli exhibition on the Stellenbosch College Museum in 2019. He stated that Nkoli’s activism crossed boundaries and had resonated in lots of different components of the continent.

Learn extra: South African singer Nakhane redefines ideas of masculinity

As artists and activists commemorate and have fun the life and legacy of Nkoli, allow us to keep in mind his battle for the creation of a democratic South Africa wherein all folks might stay dignified lives with out concern of discrimination. As we keep in mind Nkoli, we should always suppose by what different fights nonetheless should be fought, what methods of oppression nonetheless should be unbuckled and what solidarities nonetheless should be solid.